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The goal of this short tutorial is to define which materials are treatable by high vacuum deposition processes. This is an important issue for those approaching deposition processes for the first time, perhaps thinking of applying them to their products.
Diffusion pumps are static devices, that is, without moving mechanical parts, used as primary pumping devices in systems in which the required degree of vacuum is in the range between 1e-4 and 1e-9 mbar. These are the first devices developed capable of generating a pumping action in the so-called molecular vacuum regime, ie the one in which the free path of each molecule present in a closed chamber is greater than the size of the chamber itself.
In the world of high vacuum equipment, there is often a need to make fixed couplings between mechanical components that can guarantee the necessary sealing conditions between a low-pressure environment and the atmosphere. The most used standards nowadays, for the design of these couplings, are basically three: CF, KF and ISO. Let's see the general characteristics and the selection criteria.
Turbomolecular pumps are one of the most iconic parts of a vacuum deposition plant. Their appearance evokes the structure of a turbocompressors of the type used in commercial jet aircraft engines (turbofans).
You may have noticed that the finishing of the internal surfaces of the vacuum chambers tends to be more and more accurate as the basic vacuum you want to obtain is more severe. The reason is that the amount of water that must be managed due to the outgassing phenomenon increases with the increase in the surface roughness of the chamber.
O-rings are fundamental elements of high vacuum systems. They are seals in elastomeric material, with a circular section, intended to be inserted in special seats, and to be compressed during use, acting as a sealing element.
Many industrial vacuum deposition processes require an environment with a controlled composition of the environment: a certain amount of high purity technical gases is then continuously fed into the chambers, using controlled flow valves called MFC (Mass Flow Controllers).
Aluminum, although not many know it, is a metal with extraordinary properties. It does not exist in nature in the metallic state, but always in the form of compounds, the best known of which is Bauxite, in which it is contained in the form of oxides and hydroxides.
Absolute emptiness is the absence of matter in space. How many particles are present in the small UHV chambers used in laboratories? We asked ourselves this question in this article!
In pumping systems for vacuum plants,, it is common to use rotary vane pumps. In these machines, the oil has important functions for the correct functioning of the machine.